Congress Poland or Russian Poland, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland, was a polity created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign Polish state. Until the November Uprising in 1831, the kingdom was in a personal union with the tsars of Russia. Thereafter, the state was forcibly integrated into the Russian Empire over the course of the 19th century. In 1915, during World War I, it was replaced by the Central Powers with the nominal Regency Kingdom of Poland, until Poland regained independence in 1918.
Zamoyski Palace (Polish: Pałac Zamoyskich) - a historical building, located by Nowy Świat Street in Warsaw, Poland.
The Konstanty Zamoyski Palace (Polish: Pałac Konstantego Zamoyskiego; Pałac Zamoyskich) is a historic building on ulica Foksal in Warsaw, Poland.
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Yiddish: אױפֿשטאַנד אין װאַרשעװער געטאָ; Polish: powstanie w getcie warszawskim; German: Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto) was the 1943 act of Jewish resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto in German-occupied Poland during World War II to oppose Nazi Germany's final effort to transport the remaining ghetto population to Majdanek and Treblinka. After the Grossaktion Warsaw of summer 1942, in which more than a quarter of a million Jews were deported from the ghetto to Treblinka and murdered, the remaining Jews began to build bunkers and smuggle weapons and explosives into the ghetto. The left-wing Jewish Combat Organization (ŻOB) and right-wing Jewish Military Union (ŻZW) formed and began to train. However, only the ŻZW received logistical support from the similarly right-leaning Polish Home Army. A small resistance effort to another roundup in January 1943 was partially successful and spurred the Polish groups to support the Jews in earnest.
The Church of the Holy Spirit in Warsaw is a church at 3 Długa Street, in Warsaw's New Town.
The Government Protection Bureau or Bureau of Government Protection (Polish: 'Biuro Ochrony Rządu, BOR ', Polish pronunciation: [ˈbjurɔ ɔˈxrɔnɨ ˈʐɔndu]) was Poland's equivalent of the United States Secret Service, providing antiterrorism and VIP security services for the Polish government. On February 1, 2018 the bureau has been disbanded and a new State Protection Service (Polish: 'Służba Ochrony Państwa, SOP') has been formed in its place, absorbing its manpower and functions (security of incumbent and former Presidents of Poland, high ranking state officials, institutions and Polish embassies and consulates abroad).
The Załuski Library (Polish: Biblioteka Załuskich, Latin: Bibliotheca Zalusciana) was built in Warsaw in 1747–1795 by Józef Andrzej Załuski and his brother, Andrzej Stanisław Załuski, both Roman Catholic bishops. The library was the first Polish public library, the largest library in Poland, and one of the earliest public libraries in Europe.
Smolna is one of the streets of Warsaw's city centre.
The Warsaw Lyceum (Polish: Liceum Warszawskie; German: Königlich-Preußisches Lyzäum zu Warschau) was a secondary school that existed in Warsaw, under the Kingdom of Prussia and under the Kingdom of Poland, from 1804 to its closing in 1831 by Imperial Russia following the Polish November 1830 Uprising.
The Kazanowski Palace (Polish: pałac Kazanowskich), also known as the Radziejowski Palace, was a large palace in Warsaw, occupying the place where the Charitable Center Res Sacra Miser stands today.
Resursa Obywatelska Palace (Polish: Resursa Obywatelska) - a historical building, located by Krakowskie Przedmieście in Warsaw, Poland.
The Great Synagogue of Warsaw (Polish: Wielka Synagoga w Warszawie) was one of the grandest buildings constructed in Poland in the 19th century and at the time of its opening was the largest synagogue in the world. It was located on Tłomackie street in Warsaw.
The Jewish Historical Institute (Polish: Żydowski Instytut Historyczny or ŻIH; Yiddish: ייִדישער היסטאָרישער אינסטיטוט), also known as the Emanuel Ringelblum Jewish Historical Institute, is a research foundation in Warsaw, Poland, chiefly dealing with the history of Jews in Poland and Jewish culture.
Adam Mickiewicz Monument (Polish: Pomnik Adama Mickiewicza) is a monument dedicated to Adam Mickiewicz at the Krakowskie Przedmieście in the Śródmieście district of Warsaw, Poland. The Neo-Classicist monument was constructed in 1897–1898 by sculptor Cyprian Godebski.
The Battle of Warsaw (German: Schlacht von Warschau; Polish: Bitwa pod Warszawą; Swedish: Tredagarsslaget vid Warszawa) was a battle which took place near Warsaw on July 28–July 30 [O.S. July 18–20] 1656, between the armies of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden and Brandenburg. It was a major battle in the Second Northern War between Poland and Sweden in the period 1655–1660, also known as The Deluge. According to Hajo Holborn, it marked "the beginning of Prussian military history".
Jerusalem Avenue (Polish: Aleje Jerozolimskie) is one of the principal streets of the city of Warsaw in Poland. It runs through the City Centre along the East-West axis, linking the western borough of Wola with the bridge on the Vistula River and the borough of Praga on the other side of the river.
Kocierzew Południowy [kɔˈt͡ɕɛʐɛf pɔwudˈɲɔvɨ] is a village in Łowicz County, Łódź Voivodeship, in central Poland. It is the seat of the gmina (administrative district) called Gmina Kocierzew Południowy. It lies approximately 15 kilometres (9 mi) north-east of Łowicz and 62 km (39 mi) north-east of the regional capital Łódź.
Sobański Palace (Polish: Pałac Sobiańskich w Warszawie) - a historical building, located by Ujazdów Avenue in Warsaw, Poland.
The Siege of Warsaw in 1939 was fought between the Polish Warsaw Army (Armia Warszawa) garrisoned and entrenched in the capital of Poland (Warsaw) and the invading German Army.
The Leszczyński Residence (Kamienica Leszczynski) - also called the Prażmowski, Pastoriusa, Rautenstrauchów or Dobrycza - is a rococo-classical townhouse at 87 Krakowskie Przedmieście, in Warsaw.
The Library at the Royal Castle is a large building adjacent to the Royal Castle in Warsaw, Poland. It was built between 1779 and 1783 according to design of Dominik Merlini and Jan Chrystian Kamsetzer in order to accommodate the royal collection of books belonging to King Stanisław August Poniatowski, the last King of sovereign Poland.
St. Kazimierz Church (Polish: Kościół św. Kazimierza) is a Roman Catholic church in Warsaw's New Town at Rynek Nowego Miasta 2 (New Town Market Place, no. 2).
The Chopin Statue is a large bronze statue of Frédéric Chopin that now stands in the upper part of Warsaw's Royal Baths Park aka Łazienki Park, adjacent to Aleje Ujazdowskie (Ujazdów Avenue).
The Museum of Evolution of Polish Academy of Sciences (Polish: Muzeum Ewolucji Instytutu Paleobiologii Polskiej Akademii Nauk) is the display area of the natural history museum in Warsaw, Poland. It is the public front of the Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii or Zoology Museum and the Instytut Paleobiologii or Paleobiology Institute. It is based at the Palace of Culture and Science.
The Museum of Industry and Agriculture (Polish: Muzeum Przemysłu i Rolnictwa) is a former museum of technology and agriculture at 66, Krakowskie Przedmieście in Warsaw, Poland.
St. Barbara Church (Polish: Kościół Świętej Barbary) is a Roman Catholic church in the Śródmieście district of Warsaw, Poland.
Warsaw Uprising Monument (Polish: Pomnik Powstania Warszawskiego) is a monument in Warsaw, Poland, dedicated to the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. Unveiled in 1989, it was sculpted by Wincenty Kućma and the architect was Jacek Budyn. It is located on the southern side of Krasiński Square.
Muzeum Techniki w Warszawie is a museum in Warsaw, Poland. It was established in 1955. It is located in the Palace of Culture & Science.
Ulica Nowy Świat (Polish pronunciation: [uˈlit͡sa ˈnɔvɨ ˈɕfjat], New World Street) is one of the main historic thoroughfares of Warsaw.
The Monument to Prince Józef Poniatowski in Warsaw is a monument currently located at 46/48 Krakowskie Przedmieście in the courtyard of the Presidential Palace.
The Saxon Axis (Polish: Oś Saska) is a feature of the historical city centre of Warsaw. It is a line running from the Vistula through the Presidential Palace, the Krakowskie Przedmieście, Saxon Square, Saxon Palace, Saxon Garden, Lubomirski Palace to Plac Żelaznej Bramy.
Uruski Palace (Polish: Pałac Uruskich) - a historical building, located by Krakowskie Przedmieście in Warsaw, Poland.
Hale Mirowskie (Mirów's Halls, formerly Trade or Marketplace Halls - Hale Targowe) are trade centers (halls) constructed in 1899-1901 in Mirów district in Warsaw. Until their destruction during Warsaw Uprising in 1944 they were the largest trade centers in Warsaw. They were rebuilt in the period of 1950s-1960s and restored to their original function as trade centers.
Ujazdów Avenue (Polish: Aleje Ujazdowskie) is a major thoroughfare parallel to the Vistula River in the downtown district of Warsaw, Poland.
PKO Rotunda is a rotunda-type building owned by the PKO BP bank in the center of Warsaw, Poland. Designed from 1960–1969 by chief architect Jerzy Jakubowicz, it was the site of the 1979 Warsaw gas explosion. Soon in October 1979 it was rebuilt and opened again.
The Museum of John Paul II Collection (Polish: Muzeum Kolekcji im. Jana Pawła II) in Warsaw, also known as the Porczyński Gallery or Carroll-Porczyński Collection, is a museum dedicated to its painting collection, which is housed in the building of the former stock exchange and National Bank. It is considered one of the finest collections of European art in Warsaw. The collection includes around 400 exhibits mainly Old Masters and the Impressionists along with some copies of masterpieces of European painting.
Marszałkowska (lit. Marshal Street) is one of the main thoroughfares of Warsaw's city center. It links Bank Square in its north sector with Plac Unii Lubelskiej (Union of Lublin Square) in the south.
Warszawa Voivodeship (Polish: województwo warszawskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975–1998, superseded by Masovian Voivodeship.
The Warsaw concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager Warschau, also KL Warschau, KZ Warschau, Gęsiówka concentration camp, and Warschau Main Camp) was a Nazi concentration camp built on the ruins of the Warsaw Ghetto, around Gęsiówka prison. A minor camp, the Warsaw camp is absent from most standard Holocaust accounts. Over the course of its operation an estimated 8,000–9,000 prisoners were engaged in slave labor of whom 4,000 to 5,000 are estimated to have died in the camp, during the death march from the camp, the Warsaw Uprising, and hiding after the uprising.
The Janasz Palace (Polish: Pałac Janaszów, Pałac Janaszów Czackich) is a historic building on ulica Zielna in Warsaw, Poland.
Muzeum Farmacji im. Antoniny Leśniewskiej w Warszawie is a museum of pharmacy in Warsaw, Poland. It was established in 1985. Exhibits include original pharmaceutical laboratory equipment from the 1930s. There are also displays covering the history of Warsaw pharmacies.
There are over 2,500 antiquities on display at the museum.
The term Kniefall von Warschau, also referred to as Warschauer Kniefall, (both German for "Warsaw genuflection") refers to a gesture of humility and penance by German Chancellor Willy Brandt towards the victims of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
Marywil (from French Ville de Marie) was a large commercial centre and a palace in Warsaw, occupying roughly the place where the Grand Theatre stands today.
The Kotowski Palace (Polish: Pałac Kotowskich) was a 17th-century palace in Warsaw, Poland. It served as the main cloister building for the Benedictine Sisters of Perpetual Adoration.
Krakowskie Przedmieście (Polish pronunciation: [kraˈkɔfskʲɛ pʂɛdˈmjɛɕt͡ɕɛ], literally: Kraków suburb; French: Faubourg de Cracovie) is one of the best known and most prestigious streets of Poland's capital, surrounded by historic palaces, churches and manor-houses. Krakowskie Przedmieście Royal Avenue constitutes the northernmost part of Warsaw's Royal Route, and links the Old Town and Royal Castle (at Castle Square) with some of the most notable institutions in Warsaw, including – proceeding southward – the Presidential Palace, Warsaw University, and the Polish Academy of Sciences headquartered in the Staszic Palace. The immediate southward extension of Krakowskie Przedmieście along the Royal Route is ulica Nowy Świat (New World Street).
Pac Palace (Polish: Pałac Paca) - a historical building, located by Miodowa Street in Warsaw, Poland.
The Ester Rachel Kamińska and Ida Kamińska State Jewish Theater (in Polish Teatr Żydowski im. Estery Racheli i Idy Kamińskich) is a state theatrical institution in Warsaw, the capital city of Poland. It was named after the Polish-Jewish actress Ester Rachel Kamińska, who was called the "mother of Yiddish theater," and her daughter, the Academy Award-nominated actress Ida Kaminska. Ida Kamińska directed the theater and acted in its productions from the time of its founding until 1968.
Umschlagplatz (German: collection point or reloading point) was the term used during The Holocaust to denote the holding areas adjacent to railway stations in occupied Poland where Jews from ghettos were assembled for deportation to Nazi death camps. The largest collection point was in Warsaw next to the Warsaw Ghetto. In 1942 between 254,000 – 265,000 Jews passed through the Warsaw Umschlagplatz on their way to the Treblinka extermination camp during Operation Reinhard, the deadliest phase of the Holocaust in Poland. Often those awaiting the arrival of Holocaust trains, were held at the Umschlagplatz overnight. Other examples of Umschlagplatz include the one at Radogoszcz station - adjacent to the Łódź Ghetto - where people were sent to Chełmno extermination camp and Auschwitz.
Przebendowski Palace is a palace in Warsaw, built in the first half of the 18th century for Jan Jerzy Przebendowski. It is now located between the carriageways of the main road 62 "Solidarności" Avenue (the former address was 14 Bielańska).
Mariensztat is a neighbourhood in Warsaw's borough of Śródmieście (city centre). It is located between the Vistula river and the historical Old Town.
The Battle of Grunwald is a painting by Jan Matejko depicting the Battle of Grunwald and the victory of the allied Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania over the Teutonic Order in 1410. The canvas dates to 1878 and is one of the most heroic representations of the history of Poland and Lithuania. It is displayed in the National Museum in Warsaw.
The Embassy of Canada to Poland (French: Ambassade du Canada en Pologne; Polish: Ambasada Kanady w Polsce) in Warsaw is the diplomatic mission of Canada to Poland. The Embassy also covers the country of Belarus as part of its mandate. The Embassy is located at ulica Jana Matejki 1/5 in Warsaw, down the street from the Polish Sejm.
Warsaw metro station A-16 Muranów is a proposed and planned Warsaw Metro station. It was included in the original plans, however it was temporarily dropped in 1989 due to budget constraints. As of 2009 this station is in hiatus - it is listed as a planned investment, but the last official update regarding its status dates to 2006. The proposed location of the station in the Muranów neighbourhood (crossroads of Anielewicza and Andersa streets), 635 meters to the north of A-15 Ratusz Arsenał and 899 meters to the south of A-17 Dworzec Gdański.
The Deanery of St. John's Cathedral, Warsaw (Polish: Pałac Dziekana w Warszawie) is a historic building located on ulica Dziekania (Deanery Street) in the Old Town of Warsaw, Poland.
Plac Konstytucji (English: Constitution Square) is a proposed and planned Warsaw Metro station. It was included in the original plans, however it was temporarily dropped in 1989 due to budget constraints. As of 2009 this station is in hiatus - it is listed as a planned investment, but the last official update regarding its status dates to 2006. However, in September 2019 the Warsaw city council announced plans to build the station after all. A contractor has been announced, and will have until 2026 to build the station. The proposed location of the station is the corner of Marszałkowska and Hoża streets, some 300 m north of the Constitution Square.
The Polish Academy of Sciences (Polish: Polska Akademia Nauk, PAN) is a Polish state-sponsored institution of higher learning. Headquartered in Warsaw, it is responsible for spearheading the development of science across the country by a society of distinguished scholars and a network of research institutes. It was established in 1951, during the early period of the Polish People's Republic following World War II.
The Church of the Visitation of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary (Polish: Kościół Nawiedzenia Najświętszej Marii Panny), otherwise known as St. Mary's Church (Kościół Mariacki) is a church in Warsaw, Poland. It is one of oldest buildings and one of the few surviving examples of Gothic architecture in the city. It is located at ulica Przyrynek 2.
The Jesuit Church (Polish: Kościół Jezuitów), otherwise the Church of the Gracious Mother of God (Kościół Matki Bożej Łaskawej) is an ornate church in Warsaw, Poland. Immediately adjacent to St. John's Cathedral, it is one of the most notable mannerist churches in Poland's capital.
The Fryderyk Chopin University of Music (Polish: Uniwersytet Muzyczny Fryderyka Chopina, UMFC) is located at ulica Okólnik 2 in central Warsaw, Poland. It is the oldest and largest music school in Poland, and one of the largest in Europe.
The Saxon Palace (Polish: pałac Saski w Warszawie) was one of the most distinctive buildings in prewar Warsaw, Poland. It was destroyed in World War II and not rebuilt as of 2019. There are however discussions regarding reconstruction of the building.
Lelewel Palace (Polish: Pałac Lelewelów) was a rococo palace on the Miodowa Street in the Warsaw Old Town, which was also unofficially named "Palace Street" (ulica Pałacowa). Lelewel Palace was built in 1755 by Efraim Szreger on an estate documented to have been property of King John III Sobieski and maintaining the original Corps de logis. The client and owner until 1787 was Constance Lelewel née Jauch.
In interbellum Poland, Warsaw was not only the capital of the Warszawa Voivodeship, but also it was a voivodeship itself, called “Miasto stoleczne Warszawa” (“The Capital City of Warsaw”). With the area of 141 km2. (134 km² of the four counties' area, plus 7 km² of the Vistula river) and population of 1 179 500 (as for 1931) it was considered a separate unit, just like any other voivodeship.
The Warsaw Uprising (Polish: powstanie warszawskie; German: Warschauer Aufstand) was a major World War II operation, in the summer of 1944, by the Polish underground resistance, led by the Home Army (Polish: Armia Krajowa), to liberate Warsaw from German occupation. The uprising was timed to coincide with the retreat of the German forces from Poland ahead of the Soviet advance. While approaching the eastern suburbs of the city, the Red Army temporarily halted combat operations, enabling the Germans to regroup and defeat the Polish resistance and to raze the city in reprisal. The Uprising was fought for 63 days with little outside support. It was the single largest military effort taken by any European resistance movement during World War II.
The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (Polish: Sobór św. Aleksandra Newskiego, Russian: Александро-Невский собор) was a Russian Orthodox Cathedral in Saxon Square built in Warsaw, Poland, then a part of the Russian Empire. The cathedral was designed by distinguished Russian architect Leon Benois, and was built between 1894 and 1912. When it was finally completed, it was 70 metres in height, at that time, the tallest building in Warsaw.
Kamienica Łyszkiewicza w Warszawie (the Łyszkiewicz apartment building) is a museum (birthplace of Maria Skłodowska Curie), established 1967, in Warsaw New Town, Poland.
Ulica Świętokrzyska (Holy Cross Street) in Warsaw's city center is one of the Polish city's principal thoroughfares. It links the city center with the city's western Wola district.
The Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology (PCMA; Polish: Centrum Archeologii Śródziemnomorskiej im. Kazimierza Michałowskiego UW) operates as an independent research institute of the University of Warsaw under the present name since 1990. It is dedicated to organizing, implementing and coordinating archaeological research, both excavations and study projects, as well as conservation, reconstruction and restoration projects, in northeastern Africa, the Near East and Cyprus. Projects include sites covering a broad chronological spectrum from the dawn of civilization (prehistoric times) through all the historic periods of the ancient Mediterranean civilizations to Late Antiquity and early Islam. Tasks beside fieldwork include comprehensive documentation of finds, archives management and publication of the results in keeping with international research standards. The PCMA manages the Research Centre in Cairo.
The Warsaw metropolitan area (known in Polish as: Aglomeracja warszawska) is the metropolitan area of Warsaw, the capital of Poland. The metropolitan area covers ten counties in the Masovian Voivodeship, with an area of 3,000 km² and a population of 3,101,000 in 2014.
Wilcza (lit. Wolf Street) is a street in Warsaw's city centre. It links Koszykowa Street in the south-eastern part of the borough with the Three Crosses Square at the Royal Route. Initially, at least since 14th century, the street was just a road running along by the fields belonging to the vogts of old Warsaw, much to the south of the city's limits.
Zielna (literally "related to weeds or herbs", "herbal") is a street in Warsaw city centre, Poland. Initially one of the main streets linking the southern city centre with its northern part, it lost much of its significance in 1941, when the nearby Marszałkowska street had been extended across the Saxon Garden to the Bankowy Sq. During the Warsaw Uprising of 1944 heavy fighting took place for the PAST skyscraper located at Zielna 37. The building was taken by the Polish forces in the effect of heavy fights. After the Uprising most of the street had been completely demolished. After the war only the two buildings of the PAST company had been rebuilt, while the rest of the ruins were removed. Currently there are plans to fill the empty space between Zielna and Marszałkowska with new houses, which however is still disputed.
The Palace of the Ministry of Revenues and Treasury (Polish: Pałac Komisji Rządowej Przychodów i Skarbu) is located at 3/5 Bank Square in Warsaw. It is sometimes simply referred to as the Commission Palace. Currently it is not the home to the named ministry, but serves as Warsaw's official city hall, the seat of the President of Warsaw and the provincial office of the Mazovia province.
St. Alexander's Church (Polish: kościół św. Aleksandra) is a Roman Catholic church on Three Crosses Square in Warsaw, Poland.
Tamka, or ulica Tamka, is a street in the Powiśle district of Warsaw, Poland. The street runs downhill from central Warsaw toward the Vistula River and connects ulica Świętokrzyska with the Świętokrzyski Bridge.
Ulica Miła 18 (or 18 Pleasant Street in English) was the headquarters "bunker" (actually a hidden shelter) of the Jewish Combat Organization (ŻOB), a Jewish resistance group in the Warsaw Ghetto in Poland during World War II.
Legia Warszawa (Polish: [ˈlɛɡʲja varˈʂava]), known in English as Legia Warsaw, is a professional football club based in Warsaw, Poland. Legia is one of the most successful Polish football clubs in history winning 13 Ekstraklasa Champions titles, a record 19 Polish Cup trophies and four Polish SuperCup matches. The club's home venue is the Polish Army Stadium.
The Collegium Nobilium was an elite boarding secondary school for sons of magnates and wealthy gentry (szlachta), founded in 1740 in Warsaw by Stanisław Konarski and run by Piarist monks. The school existed until 1832 and was one of the predecessors of Warsaw University. It was at first called Collegium Novum, but its name was changed in the autumn of 1741. It operated in a building on Warsaw’s Dluga Street. Later, it was moved to the district of Zoliborz.
The National Heritage Board of Poland (Polish: Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa NID) is a Polish governmental institution responsible for the objects considered most important to the nation's cultural heritage.
The Nicolaus Copernicus University Library was established on August 24, 1945, alongside the Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland.
The Polish Patent Office (PPO) (Polish: Urząd Patentowy Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej (UPRP)) is the patent office of Poland. It is based in Warsaw.
Złota 44 is a mixed-use skyscraper (192 meters high, 52 story) in central Warsaw, Poland. It was designed by Polish-American architect Daniel Libeskind in association with Polish architects Architecture. It has been developed by US real estate investment manager Amstar and Warsaw developer BBI Development, which bought the topped-out but unfinished building from its initial developer ORCO.
Mały Powstaniec (the "Little Insurrectionist") is a statue in commemoration of the child soldiers who fought and died during the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. It is located on Podwale Street, next to the ramparts of Warsaw’s Old Town.
Belweder (Polish pronunciation: [bɛlˈvɛdɛr]; in full Pałac Belwederski, from the Italian belvedere) is a palace in Warsaw, near the Łazienki Park. It is one of the official residences used by Polish presidents.
St. John's Archcathedral in Warsaw (Polish: Archikatedra św. Jana w Warszawie) is a Roman Catholic church in Warsaw's Old Town. St. John's is one of three cathedrals in Warsaw, but the only one which is also an archcathedral. It is the mother church of the archdiocese of Warsaw. St. John's Archcathedral is one of Poland's national pantheons and stands immediately adjacent to Warsaw's Jesuit church. Along with the city, the church has been listed by UNESCO as of cultural significance.
The Branicki Palace (Polish: Pałac Branickich) is an 18th-century magnate's mansion in Warsaw, Poland. It is located at the junction of Podwale and Miodowa Streets.
Lubomirski Palace (Polish: Pałac Lubomirskich) is a palace in central Warsaw, which was built in the 18th century for the Radziwiłł family.
The Nicolaus Copernicus Monument in Warsaw is one of the Polish capital's notable landmarks. It stands before the Staszic Palace, the seat of the Polish Academy of Sciences on Krakowskie Przedmieście. Designed by Bertel Thorvaldsen in 1822, it was completed in 1830.
The Monument to the Heroes of Warsaw, also known as the Warsaw Nike, is a statue located at the intersection of Nowy Przejazd (the New By-pass) and Aleja Solidarności (Solidarity Avenue) in Warsaw.
The Warsaw Fotoplastikon is a stereoscopic theatre based on the Kaiserpanorama system of rotating stereoscopic images located in Warsaw, Poland. Operating at the same location since 1905, it is the oldest stereoscopic theatre in Europe still in business at its original location. Today it is operates as a branch of the Museum of the Warsaw Uprising.
The Polish Cavalry Monument, also known as the Millennium Polish Cavalry Monument, is a statue located at the Polish Cavalry Roundabout (Rondo Jazdy Polskiej) in Warsaw.
Monument in Memory of the Fallen Polish Airmen in World War II in Warsaw commemorates Polish airmen who died in World War II.
The Roman Dmowski Monument in Warsaw (Polish: Pomnik Romana Dmowskiego w Warszawie) is a bronze statue, 5 meters (16 feet) tall, of Polish politician Roman Dmowski in Warsaw, on Na Rozdrożu Square at the intersection of Szuch and Ujazdów Avenues. It was unveiled on 10 November 2006. The statue holds a copy of the Treaty of Versailles and carries a quotation from Dmowski's book: "I am a Pole, so I have Polish duties..." ("Jestem Polakiem więc mam obowiązki polskie..."). The monument has been controversial.
The Ronald Reagan Monument was erected to honor the 40th President of the United States and his role in supporting the Polish anti-communist labour union Solidarity. The monument faces the U.S. Embassy building at Ujazdów Avenue (Aleje Ujazdowskie) in the Śródmieście district of Warsaw, Poland. The monument was unveiled on November 21, 2011 by Lech Wałęsa.
Służba Celna (English: Customs Service) is a former Polish customs service department, subordinate to the Polish Ministry of Finance. In its current form, the Polish Customs Service was created in 1999, from the reformed Central Board of Customs (Główny Urząd Ceł). Like most custom services worldwide, the Polish Customs Service is responsible for assessing and collecting customs duties and taxes, exercising customs control, primarily at the Poland's borders. Służba Celna was a law enforcement agency.
Adam Smith Center (Polish: Centrum im. Adama Smitha) is a think-tank based in Poland. It has been called "the most important think tank in Poland".
St. Martin's Church (Polish: Kościół św. Marcina) is a church in Warsaw, Poland. It is located on ulica Piwna ("Beer Street") in the Polish capital's Old Town.
Mieszkanie Stefana Żeromskiego na Zamku Królewskim w Warszawie is a writer's house museum in Warsaw, Poland. It is the apartment room that Stefan Zeromski, a Polish novelist and dramatist, once stayed in.
The 1979 explosion at PKO Bank Polski’s Rotunda office in Warsaw took place on February 15, 1979, at 12:37 p.m. As a result, 49 people died and 135 were injured. Officially, the tragedy was caused by a gas explosion, but in the course of time much speculation appeared, and Varsovians talked among themselves that the building had been blown up by a bomb. Furthermore, to many the explosion served as a harbinger of future changes in Poland.
The Science Picnic is Europe's largest outdoor science-popularization event organized jointly by Polish Radio and the Copernicus Science Centre. It has been held every year since 1997 in Warsaw's New Town Square and Podzamcze area, between 2010 and 2012 in Marszałek Rydz-Śmigły Park, and since 2013 at the National Stadium. A wide range of research fields are represented at the Picnic, including the hard, natural, and social sciences together with the humanities. Research and teaching institutions from Poland and abroad reveal here behind-the-scenes aspects of their work and present science in ways accessible to visitors of various ages, using hands-on experiments and interactive exhibits.
The Church of the Archangel Michael in Warsaw was an Orthodox church in Warsaw, located on Ujazdowskie Avenue (aleje Ujazdowskie), in the area of the current Plac na Rozdrożu (Crossroads Square). It was one of the military churches built for the needs of the Russian troops stationed in Warsaw, in particular the Lithuanian Regiment. Built in the 1890s, it was destroyed in 1923, during the recovery of churches recognized as symbols of Russian power during the Second Polish Republic.
The Institute for the History of Science was established in 1954 as an institution of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Poland.
The Hospital of the Holy Spirit in Warsaw (Szpital Świętego Ducha w Warszawie) was a hospital originally built in 1442, at the church of St. Martin's at Piwna Street in Warsaw's Old Town. It was founded by Anna Fiodorówna (a princess of the Duchy of Masovia) as a shelter for the poor. After a number of moves, it stayed at Elektoralna Street.
Polish Hamlet. Portrait of Alexander Wielopolski is an oil painting by Jacek Malczewski from 1903, presenting the allegorical grandson Alexander Wielopolski and two different visions of the fate of the Polish nation.
Fat Kaśka on Tłomackie is the popular name for a neoclassical well originating from the 18th century, located in Warsaw, at the middle of "Solidarności" Avenue close to the intersection with Generała Władysława Andersa Street.
The Bednarska Street in Warsaw, Poland, is a street in Warsaw's Śródmieście borough, and is the narrowest street in Warsaw (5.3 m). The street received its current name before the year 1743, stemming from its upper part consisting of houses inhabited by artisans, probably mainly by coopers (bednarz being the Polish word for cooper). Officially, the name was given in 1770.
The Royal Route (Polish: Trakt Królewski, IPA: [ˈtrakt kruˈlɛfskʲi]) in Warsaw, Poland, is a former communication route that led southward from the city's Old Town. It now comprises a series of connecting Warsaw streets that feature a number of historic landmarks.
The Polish Ice Hockey Federation (Polish: Polski Związek Hokeja na Lodzie, PZHL) is the governing body that oversees ice hockey in Poland. Founded in Warsaw on February 22, 1925 by representatives of the 4 Polish hockey clubs: Polonia Warsaw, AZS Warszawa, Warszawianka Warszawa and Warszawskie Towarzystwo Łyżwiarskie (WTŁ Warszawa).
The Embassy of the United Kingdom in Warsaw is the chief diplomatic mission of the United Kingdom in Poland. It is located on Kawalerii street in the Ujazdów district. The current British Ambassador to Poland is Jonathan Knott.
The United States Embassy in Poland is situated on Ujazdów Avenue in Warsaw, Poland.
The Battle of Orsha is a painting of the Battle of Orsha, which was fought on September 8, 1514 between the allied forces of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland (to the right hand side of the painting) against the Vasili III's army of the Grand Duchy of Moscow (left) as part of the Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars.
The Bank of Poland (Bank Polski) is the name of two former banks in Poland, each of which acted as a central bank. The first was founded by Prince Francis Xavier Drucki-Lubecki in 1828 in the Kingdom of Congress Poland and functioned until 1885, when it was absorbed by the State Bank of the Russian Empire. The second was founded in 1924 in the Second Polish Republic by Prime Minister Władysław Grabski and was liquidated in 1952. Their legacy is continued by Poland's present central bank, the National Bank of Poland, founded in 1945.
Nalewki is a former name of the Bohaterów Getta (Heroes of the Ghetto) street in Warsaw, Poland, as well as a name applied to the entire borough around it. The street runs from the Długa Street (Long Street) in the New Town towards what was the northern outskirts of the city in the 19th century, and the neighbourhood of Muranów. Until World War II inhabited primarily by Jews, after the war it was rebuilt only partially, part of its former course taken up by a park established after the war. (The historical Nalewki Street's intersection with Franciszkańska was one of the busiest corners of pre-World War II Warsaw; the present Bohaterow Getta does not get that far).
Samborska Street (ulica Samborska) is the shortest street in Warsaw and possibly in Poland.
Ulica Próżna (lit. Empty Street) is a historical street in Warsaw, Poland. It is the only former Warsaw Ghetto street still featuring as many as four tenement houses.
The Office for War Veterans and Victims of Oppression (Polish: Urząd do Spraw Kombatantów i Osób Represjonowanych) in the main institution in the Government of Poland to deal with the issues of Polish veterans of struggles for independence and victims of oppression. In 1991 a special status was set up for people of these categories, and the main tasks of the Office include awarding this status, providing care for people with this status, and disseminating the information about their life and struggle.
The Pancer Viaduct was a viaduct in Warsaw joining Castle Square to the Kierbedzia Bridge. It was built in 1846, and demolished in 1944 and was replaced by the Warsaw W-Z Route thoroughfare.
Żyleta (Polish pronunciation: [ʐɨˈlɛta], English: the Razor) is a common name of a northern stand in the Polish Army Stadium in Warsaw, Poland, traditionally occupied by the most spontaneous and fanatical fans of Legia Warsaw football club. Before the stadium renovation (2008–2011), the “old” Żyleta referred only to the center section within the eastern stand of the stadium (occasionally, it would also refer to eastern stand as a whole). There is a special exhibition dedicated to the "old" Żyleta in the Legia club museum. Today, after the stadium renovation, the “new” Żyleta means the whole northern stand of stadium (located behind the goal).
Institute of Economics, Polish Academy of Sciences (Polish: Instytut Nauk Ekonomicznych PAN, abbreviation: INE PAN) is a public Polish research center for economic and business studies. It was founded on December 10, 1980. Its offices are located in the Staszic Palace and the Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw. Organizationally, it is part of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The Institute of Economics has the rights to bestow doctoral degrees, habilitation degrees and to initiate the professorship procedure. Some of its MBA and DBA prominent programs are the most modern programs in Poland which are internationally recognized.
The Sigismund Augustus Bridge was a wooden bridge over the Vistula River in Warsaw which came into operation in 1573 and lasted for 30 years. It was the first permanent crossing over the Vistula River in Warsaw and the longest wooden crossing in Europe at the time at 500 meters in length. The bridge was one of the greatest engineering works of the Polish Renaissance and one of the largest in Europe.
The Church of St. Francis in Warsaw is a church adjoining Franciscan convent in Warsaw's New Town.
The Central Securities Depository of Poland (Krajowy Depozyt Papierów Wartościowych, KDPW) is a Polish central securities depository responsible for the management and supervision of the depository-settlement system as it relates to the trading of financial instruments in Poland. Polish CSD holds securities in uncertificated (dematerialized) form. It is a joint-stock company owned by 3 shareholders: the Polish Ministry of Treasury, the Polish Stock Exchange, and the National Bank of Poland.
The National Electoral Commission (Polish: Państwowa Komisja Wyborcza, PKW) is the only one permanent election commission in Poland. The second permanent electoral organs are komisarze wyborczy (single komisarz wyborczy, election commissioner), which number is 51.
State Fire Service (Polish: Państwowa Straż Pożarna, PSP) is a fire fighting service of Poland. It is subordinate to the Ministry of Interior. History of fire fighting services in Poland dates to the medieval times. The modern State Fire Service is based on the 1992 legislation.
Evangelical Reformed Parish in Warsaw (Polish: in full, Parafia Ewangelicko-Reformowana w Warszawie) is a Polish Reformed church in Warsaw at Aleja Solidarności 76a.
The Polish Investment and Trade Agency (Polish: Polska Agencja Inwestycji i Handlu, abbreviated to PAIH) is a Polish government agency which promotes Poland as an attractive destination for foreign investment.
The Józef Piłsudski Monument in Warsaw was erected to honor Józef Piłsudski, a military leader, Marshal of Poland and one of the main figures responsible for Poland's regaining its independence. This 3 metres (9.8 ft) tall, bronze and granite statue is located near Piłsudski's Square and the Hotel Europejski, at Tokarzewski-Karaszewicz Street. It bears the inscriptions "Józef Piłsudski" and "Marshal of Poland".
The Monument to the Polish Underground State and Home Army is located on Wiejska Street at the intersection with Jana Matejki Street opposite the Sejm, the Polish parliament.
The Monument to the Battle of Monte Cassino (Polish: Pomnik Bitwy o Monte Cassino w Warszawie) is a monument in Warsaw, Poland located in the square between General Anders Street and the gates of the Krasiński Gardens near the National Archaeological Museum in the Warsaw Arsenal.
The Tadeusz Kościuszko Monument in Warsaw was erected to commemorate the Polish and American hero, general Tadeusz Kościuszko, and situated on the Iron-Gate Square in front of the Lubomirski Palace. It stands on the main axis of the historical city centre of Warsaw, the Saxon Axis. The monument is an exact copy of the Brigadier General Thaddeus Kosciuszko bronze statue at Lafayette Park, Washington, D.C. which was unveiled on 9 May 1910, and designed by the Polsh sculptor Antoni Popiel (1865–1910).
The Monument to the Fallen and Murdered in the East is a monument in Warsaw, Poland which commemorates the victims of the Soviet invasion of Poland during World War II and subsequent repressions. It was unveiled on 17 September 1995, on the 56th anniversary of the Soviet invasion of 1939.
The Stefan Starzyński monument (Pomnik Stephane Starzyńskiego) in Bank Square in Warsaw is one of two Warsaw monuments dedicated to the memory of the former President of Warsaw, Stefan Starzyński. It is the work of sculptor Andrzej Renes.
Polish Film Institute (Polish: Polski Instytut Sztuki Filmowej) is a state-run cultural institution responsible for the development of Polish cinematography and the promotion of Polish film worldwide. The Institute is located at the Krakowskie Przedmieście 21/23 in Warsaw, Poland.
The Ignacy Jan Paderewski Polish Institute of Diplomacy (PID) is a Polish government funded institution reporting to the Minister of Foreign Affairs. The primary goal of the institute is to educate and develop the professional skills of Polish Foreign Service officers. The institute offers a range of courses primarily for MFA employees.
Warsaw Department (Polish: Departament Warszawski) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Polish Duchy of Warsaw in years 1806–1815.
The Memorial Route of Jewish Martyrdom and Struggle in Warsaw is located the Muranów district to commemorate people, events and places of the Warsaw Ghetto during the German occupation of Poland.
The Willy Brandt Monument in Warsaw is a monument located in Willy Brandt Square, Warsaw, Poland, near the Museum of the History of Polish Jews. It commemorates German chancellor Willy Brandt and the Warschauer Kniefall (1970).
The Umschlagplatz Monument (full name: Umschlagplatz Monument-Wall) - a monument located in Warsaw at Stawki Street, in the former loading yard, where from 1942 to 1943 Germans transported over 300 thousand Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto to the death camp in Treblinka and other camps in the Lublin district.
Vistulan Boulevards – boulevards located on the western side of the River Vistula in Warsaw, Poland. The section between Poniatowski Bridge and Śląsko-Dąbrowski Bridge is named after Bohdan Grzymała-Siedlecki, and between the bridges of Śląsko-Dąbrowski and Gdański after Jan Karski.
Polish Karate Federation (PZK, pol. Polski Związek Karate) is a Polish organization associating among others shōtōkan karate clubs. It belongs to the World Karate Federation committee.
Staging Point (Polish: Punkt etapowy) is one of five drawings depicting the life of children in the Warsaw ghetto in the collection of the Jewish Historical Institute, Warsaw. The author of the drawings is an unknown draftsman, but they are signed "Rozenfeld". The drawing was made, most probably, between autumn and winter of 1941 and commissioned as part of the Ringelblum Archive - which has been inscribed in the UNESCO Memory of the World Register in 1999.
The Queuing continues is an oil painting by Andrzej Wroblewski from 1956.
The Professor Kazimierz Michałowski Faras Gallery at the National Museum in Warsaw is a permanent gallery at the National Museum in Warsaw, presenting Nubian early Christian art. The Gallery features a unique collection of wall paintings and architectural elements from the Faras Cathedral, discovered by an archeological mission led by Professor Kazimierz Michałowski.
Tepper's Palace was a palace on Miodowa Street in the Polish capital of Warsaw.
The Branicki Residential House - Smolna 40 is an eclectic in style, palace-like building dated back to 1903, located on Smolna Street in Warsaw, Poland. It is today the four-star boutique Hotel Indigo Warsaw - Nowy Świat, a brand of InterContinental Hotels Group.
Warsaw Old Town (Polish: Stare Miasto and colloquially as Starówka) is the oldest part of Warsaw, the capital city of Poland. It is bounded by the Wybrzeże Gdańskie (Gdańsk Boulevards), along with the bank of the Vistula river, Grodzka, Mostowa and Podwale Streets. It is one of the most prominent tourist attractions in Warsaw. The heart of the area is the Old Town Market Place, rich in restaurants, cafés and shops. Surrounding streets feature medieval architecture such as the city walls, St. John's Cathedral and the Barbican which links the Old Town with Warsaw New Town.
Bożydar-Kałęczyn was the name of a former jurydyka founded in 1702 near Warsaw. It was founded partly on the land of an existing village called Kałęczyn. The city hall was located at today's address, Nowy Swiat 8/10, by J. Szwarcenberg-Czerny.
The Foksal Gallery or Galeria Foksal is a small non-commercial art gallery in Warsaw, Poland established in 1966, that shows works by contemporary avant-garde artists.
The Lilium Tower was a planned skyscraper to be built in Warsaw, Poland, which was designed by Zaha Hadid. If the construction had been completed, at 260 metres (850 ft), it would have surpassed the Palace of Culture and Science as the tallest building in Poland.
Potocki Palace (Polish: Pałac Potockich), is a large baroque palace in Warsaw located at Krakowskie Przedmieście Street 15, directly opposite the Presidential Palace. It was originally built for Denhoff family and succeeded by Potocki family in the end of 18th century. After World War II the seat of the Ministry of Culture and Art (Ministerstwo Kultury i Sztuki). Nowadays - the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage (Ministerstwo Kultury i Dziedzictwa Narodowego).
Centre for Eastern Studies (OSW, Polish: Ośrodek Studiów Wschodnich) is a Warsaw-based think tank that undertakes independent research on the political, economic and social situation in Central and Eastern Europe, Balkans, Caucasus and Central Asia.
Emergency Medical Services (Polish: Państwowe Ratownictwo Medyczne, PRM) in Poland is a service of public pre-hospital emergency healthcare, including ambulance service, provided by individual Polish cities and counties. These services are typically provided by the local, publicly operated hospital, and funded by the government of Poland. In a number of cases, the hospitals contract these services to private operators. In addition to publicly funded services, there are also a variety of private-for-profit ambulance services operating independently, as well.
The Siege of Warsaw took place between April 24 and July 1, 1656. Swedish Empire forces had occupied the Polish capital without fighting in early September 1655 (see Deluge (history)). In late April 1656, Poles and Lithuanians began the siege, with the purpose of recapturing their capital. They were successful, but later lost the city for a second time after a battle held on July 28–30, 1656 (see Battle of Warsaw (1656)).
The Bonifraterska Street in Warsaw, Poland, is one of the main streets of Warsaw's New Town, stretching from Długa Street and the Krasiński Palace to Słomiński street.
Church of the Holiest Saviour (Polish: Kościół Najświętszego Zbawiciela) is a Roman Catholic parish church in the Śródmieście district of Warsaw, Poland. It is located on the Saviour Square.
The Congress Hall (Polish: Sala Kongresowa) is a 2,880 seat theatre at the Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw, Poland. It was opened in 1955.
Warsaw Voivodeship (Polish: województwo warszawskie) was a voivodeship of Poland in the years 1919–1939. Its capital and biggest city was Warsaw.
The Constitutional Tribunal (Polish: Trybunał Konstytucyjny) is the constitutional court of the Republic of Poland, a judicial body established to resolve disputes on the constitutionality of the activities of state institutions; its main task is to supervise the compliance of statutory law with the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. It was established on the 26 March 1982 by the communist government of the People's Republic of Poland after the introduction of martial law, an attempt to crush political opposition.
Central Committee of the Polish United Workers' Party (Polish: Komitet Centralny Polskiej Zjednoczonej Partii Robotniczej, KC PZPR) was the central ruling body of the Polish United Workers' Party, the dominant political party in the People's Republic of Poland (1948-1990).
Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering (pl.: Wydział Mechaniczny Energetyki i Lotnictwa, MEL, MEiL) is located on the Central Campus of the Warsaw University of Technology. The Faculty consists of three organisation units: The Institute of Heat Engineering, the Institute of Aeronautics and Applied Mechanics and the Dean's Office.
Krasiński Library (Biblioteka Krasińskich w Warszawie) was a library in Warsaw, founded in 1844. During the German invasion and occupation of Poland, part of the building was destroyed and its collections were stolen, redistributed, or burned. Its surviving collections are now at the National Library of Poland.
Collegium Civitas is a university located in Warsaw, the capital of Poland. It was established under the auspices of five Institutes of the Polish Academy of Sciences in 1997 and has relied extensively upon the teaching and research traditions of these renowned institutions. It is open to new inventions in higher education: interdisciplinary approaches, closer lecturer-student relations, study abroad programs, internships, and the encouragement and supervision of individual student research projects.
Franciszkańska (Franciscan Street) is a street in the centre of Warsaw, linking the New Town with Nalewki street. In the 19th century it was inhabited primarily by Jews, who converted the street into a large open-air marketplace. The name itself was derived from the Church of Saint Francis owned by the Franciscans.
Main Judaic Library (Główna Biblioteka Judaistyczna or Centralna Biblioteka Judaistyczna) is a currently defunct library, which was gathering collections concerning Judaism and the history of Jews in Poland.
The National Museum of Ethnography (Polish: Państwowe Muzeum Etnograficzne w Warszawie) is a museum of ethnography in Warsaw, Poland. It was established in 1888.
Sapieha Palace (Polish: pałac Sapiehów w Warszawie) is one of the palaces in Warsaw New Town district of Warsaw, Poland. Started by the powerful Sapieha family who gave the name to the building, it currently houses the Environmental Protection School Complex.
Miodowa (lit. Honey Street) is a street in Warsaw's Old Town. More precisely, it links the Krakowskie Street in [with the Krasiński Square. It is also the name of a street in the Kazimierz district in Kraków.
The Brühl Palace (Polish: Pałac Brühla), otherwise known as Sandomierski Palace was a palace standing at Piłsudski Square. It was one of the largest palaces and one of the finest examples of rococo architecture in pre-World War II Warsaw.
The cross in front of the Presidential Palace in Poland (also known as the Smolensk Cross, Polish: krzyż smoleński) is a wooden cross which was erected as a memorial to the 96 casualties of the 2010 Polish Air Force Tu-154 crash. It was first moved to a chapel in the Presidential Palace on 16 September 2010 and, on 10 November 2010, was again moved, this time to St. Anne's Church, Warsaw, where it currently resides. The cross was controversial, provoking debate in Polish society and media about the issues of separation of church and state, politics, religion and patriotism.
The Senate (Polish: Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament, the lower house being the 'Sejm'. The history of the Polish Senate is rich in tradition and stretches back over 500 years. It was one of the first constituent bodies of a bicameral parliament in Europe and existed without hiatus until the dismemberment of the Polish state in 1795. After a brief period of existence in the inter-war period the Senate was again abolished (by many accounts illegally) by the authorities of the Polish People's Republic. It was not re-established until the collapse of the communist government and reinstatement of democracy in Poland in 1989. The Senate is based in Warsaw and is located in a building which forms part of the Sejm Complex on Ul. Wiejska, close to Three Crosses Square and Ujazdów Castle. It consists of 100 senators elected by universal ballot and is headed by the Marshal of the Senate (Marszałek Senatu). The incumbent Marshal of the Senate is Marshal Tomasz Grodzki.
Pawiak (Polish pronunciation: [ˈpavjak]) was a prison built in 1835 in Warsaw, Congress Poland.
The Duchy of Warsaw (Polish: Księstwo Warszawskie, French: Duché de Varsovie, German: Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit. The duchy was held in personal union by one of Napoleon's allies, King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony. Following Napoleon's failed invasion of Russia, the duchy was occupied by Prussian and Russian troops until 1815, when it was formally partitioned between the two countries at the Congress of Vienna. It covered the central and eastern part of present Poland and minor parts of present Lithuania and Belarus.